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January 26th, 2016

Originally Published: June 07, 2015 8:00 AM   Modified: June 12, 2015 9:26 AM

Mexico auto boom a boon for local suppliers

Photo by ASSOCIATED PRESS An employee at a Honda Motor Co. plant in Celaya, Mexico, one of the plants that’s part of the $23 billion worth of new auto production either operating or promised since 2012.

Hollingsworth Logistics Group LLC, a Dearborn-based automotive transportation and assembly supplier, plans for sales in Mexico to be a quarter of its business by 2025.

That’s an ambitious target, considering none of the company’s $400 million in revenue in 2014 came from that nation.

But Hollingsworth isn’t alone, as Southeast Michigan’s lower-tiered supply base is again heading south — 20 years after the North American Free Trade Agreementbroke business barriers further open between the U.S. and Mexico.

In what local experts are calling the new automotive gold rush, automakers such asNissan Motor Co. and Mazda Motor Corp. are producing a record number of vehicles in Mexico, most of them destined for export.

Since 2012, carmakers have invested or promised nearly $23 billion in new production in Mexico. In April, Toyota Motor Corp. announced it would spend about $1 billion on its first car factory in Mexico, with the capacity to assemble about 200,000 Corolla compact cars annually, Bloomberg News reported.

The result is a need for a more cohesive supply chain that extends farther down the tiered system, including assemblers and distributors such as Hollingsworth.

“Mexico is booming, and what we see trending is phenomenal opportunities for us,” said Greg Martinez Jr., director of international sales for Hollingsworth. “It’s key for our sustainability. If we, and others, don’t make those business expansions down there, the marketplace will become much smaller.”

Rapid expansion

Hollingsworth — minority-owned and controlled by Stephen Barr, who is of American Indian decent — is bidding on four programs in Mexico for distribution services and commodity management for FCA US LLC, Ford Motor Co. and Bombardier Inc., Martinez said.

Mike Wall, director of automotive analysis for Southfield-based IHS Automotive Inc., said that the tier structure in Mexico is “vastly underdeveloped” but that the projected volume coming out of the country is forcing automakers and suppliers to ensure their chain is more robust.

“The volumes are there, and as more automakers go down to Mexico, an infrastructure is being created that can support more suppliers down the line,” Wall said. “New plants are coming on board in the next few years, and they are already quoting that business.

“The reality is, if you want that business, you’ve got to be down there because automakers aren’t looking for parts to be shipped in anymore.”

Automakers in Mexico produced 3.2 million vehicles in 2014, surpassing Brazil’s 3.1 million to become the seventh-largest producer of vehicles. China and the U.S. remain the largest producers of cars in the world.

Production in Mexico is projected to top 4 million in 2017, according to IHS, as it gets closer to the country’s plans to reach 5 million units by 2020. This would move them ahead of India and South Korea in production.

Labor costs

Low labor costs and favorable trade agreements with more than 45 countries make Mexico an attractive location for Southeast Michigan suppliers looking for global expansion.

An average unskilled laborer in Mexico costs $8 an hour, including wages and benefits, according to data from the Ann Arbor-basedCenter for Automotive Research. Comparatively, similar workers for General Motors Co. cost $58 an hour.

Although cheap labor is a benefit, Wall said, labor rates will rise.

“I don’t think the move to Mexico is just a labor solution; it’s not the endgame,” he said. “Just as labor cost is rising in China, the whole labor cost benefit in Mexico will turn on its head eventually.”

Alejandro Rodriguez, country manager for Southfield-based Plante & Moran PLLC in Monterrey, Mexico, said constraints on the labor force will occur as the need for skilled workers and engineers rises.

“There’s already more demand than supply for the highly skilled workers,” Rodriguez said. “It’s a complete misconception that labor is inexpensive overall. … There’s a huge gap between skilled and unskilled labor.”

For instance, suppliers and automakers are likely to pay more for a plant manager in Mexico than in the U.S., Rodriguez said, because fewer people are qualified for those positions in Mexico. That creates demand that raises pay.

The next labor challenge in Mexico will be retaining talent — a familiar challenge to Southeast Michigan suppliers, Rodriquez said.

“You can’t manage your operations in Mexico with just expats; you must build a culture there,” Rodriquez said. “Not everything is about money for Mexicans. They want to feel part of something larger, just like their American counterparts.”

While issues with labor are bound to crop up, it’s Mexico’s expansive trade agreements with more than 40 countries that have driven the global auto industry into the country, experts said.

Mexico’s strong agreements allow exporters duty-free access to markets that contain 60 percent of the world’s economic output,The Wall Street Journal reported this year.

Automotive exports from Mexico this year are projected to rise to a record 2.9 million vehicles, more than 87 percent of its projected production, according to the Mexican Automobile Industry Association. As much as 70 percent of those exports are projected to be going to the U.S.

For Hollingsworth, exporting isn’t one of its options, but the increased exports from Mexico are a welcome catalyst to its own growth.

“Customers are looking for suppliers that can deliver their services on an international level,” Martinez said. “If we’re not down there as soon as possible, we’re not going to be able to compete long term.”

Mexico’s Bright Economic Future

January 25th, 2016

Stratfor

Mexico's Bright Economic Future

Mexico has long had a privileged position in Latin America. Its proximity to the United States — the largest consumer economy in the world — has contributed to the growth of a robust domestic manufacturing industry, which has become the bedrock of the Mexican economy. Manufacturing has made Mexico the third-largest U.S. trading partner and has propelled its economy to the rank of second-largest in Latin America. Still, as in all oil-producing countries, the drop in global oil prices will hurt the country’s financial position, possibly jeopardizing its security reforms. But overall, the country will manage the price drop relatively well.

Despite low growth compared with previous years, Mexico will continue to make economic progress and will lead in regional manufacturing for the foreseeable future, largely because of its close economic ties to the United States. Nearly 80 percent of Mexican exports are destined for U.S. markets, and almost half of these exports are higher-value products, such as vehicles and electronic goods. Manufacturing growth is sustained by rising natural gas flows from the United States, which have propelled the rapid expansion of Mexico’s electric grid by making energy availability more reliable.

Unsurprisingly, the commercial linkages created between the two countries over the decades, particularly since the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994, have also accelerated capital flows into the country. Mexico received about $28.5 billion in foreign direct investment in 2015. The same year, remittances from Mexican nationals working in the United States totaled nearly $22 billion — the most since 2009. During the current Mexican president’s term, the country has also opened additional avenues for foreign investment into sectors formerly closed to large inflows of foreign capital, and it has made major changes to its regulatory regime in the hydrocarbons and electricity sectors to break state monopolies, many of which have become costly and uncompetitive.

Overall, Mexico’s next few years will be quite bright. Its economy will continue benefiting from foreign investment to fund manufacturing initiatives to supply the U.S. domestic market. The growing energy trade between the United States and Mexico will also ensure secure electricity supply that will further drive manufacturing growth. Still, security concerns will persist as funding for anti-crime measures becomes less reliable.

Mexico transitions to high-value manufacturing location

August 3rd, 2015

Mexico is no longer the low-wage sourcing location for low-value consumer products for the U.S. market that it was two decades ago when the North American Free Trade Agreement with the U.S. and Canada was implemented. True, average wages have risen higher in coastal China, where so much export production is based, than in Mexico. But with an increasingly skilled Mexican workforce and a rapidly growing middle class, many international companies are investing in facilities that manufacture higher-value products for the U.S. and Mexico’s domestic market, and still more are planning to invest in sourcing there.

The near-sourcing trend is fueled by the desire to reduce turnaround time from order to delivery, cut transportation costs, and, increasingly, to avoid any repetition of the West Coast port congestion and delays that plagued so many supply chains in late 2014 and early this year.

One U.S. importer, for example, responded to a JOC.com survey about shippers’ supply chain plans in the wake of the West Coast longshore labor agreement in May by saying he wanted to shift as much production as possible away from China to Mexico.

“The whole near-shoring trend is based on ‘How do I make sure I don’t have my supply chain cut off because of lack of capacity or longshoremen’ and all of the issues you have when you’re bringing in product by boat from around the world,” said Troy Ryley, managing director of Frisco, Texas-based third-party logistics provider Transplace Mexico. “In Mexico, you’ve got multiple points to enter the U.S. via truck, and trucks are a lot more consistent on the highway than vessels on the open ocean. It’s a matter of days by truck, rather than weeks at sea.”

Over the past several years, there has been a continuous move of production to Mexico for the North American market. Some of that has come at the expense of Asia, but more often the investment in Mexican production may be in addition to Asia. “Investment going forward may be in Mexico, which doesn’t mean it’s being relocated from Asia,” said Foster Finley, a managing director of logistics consulting firm AlixPartners who specializes in supply chain performance. “Plants that in years gone by may have gone to Asia are going to Mexico now.”

In a survey last year of the near-sourcing plans of 143 senior manufacturing and distribution executives, AlixPartners found that 86 percent plan to increase their foreign manufacturing capacity closer to the U.S. in the next two or three years. The chief reasons behind these plans were the desire to cut the landed cost of imports, lower freight costs, improved speed to market and improved customer service.

The survey, conducted before the severe congestion that began to clog West Coast ports last fall, also found that 30 percent of those surveyed said near-sourcing of production would result in fewer supply chain disruptions.

“After NAFTA was implemented in 2004, many companies located in Mexico to take advantage of low wages and duty-free access to the U.S., but when China joined the WTO, they moved there to get even lower wages,” said Christopher Wilson, deputy director of the Mexico Institute at the Woodrow Wilson Center in Washington. “Over time, companies have become more sophisticated about the way they make site-selection decisions and are looking at a much wider range of factors. What that has done is push Mexico into its proper niche into areas where it has important competitive advantages vis-à-vis other countries.”

AlixPartners uses local wage costs as one of seven factors in measuring the competitiveness of global supply locations. The other six factors include availability of raw materials and cost, regulatory overhead, inbound transportation costs, inventory cost tied up in product flow, exchange rates, and tariffs or duties.

“Although Chinese wages are on average lower than Mexico’s, wages have risen rapidly up and down the coast of China that has historically been the factory of China, and they continue to go up,” Finley said. “China has made a concerted effort to tap into lower wages in inland China, but the problems are the lack of infrastructure to get product to and from the coast. The number of qualified workers also is still well behind the coast.”

The Mexican government is moving to enhance its competitive position by investing heavily in road, rail and aviation infrastructure improvements and by streamlining its customs procedures. As a result, it has become a major source for U.S. imports of bulky products such as automobiles, aerospace products and components and appliances that don’t fit easily into a container, but can be shipped by road or rail to the U.S.

Mexico is also the second-largest source of high-value, high-tech products such as cell phones, gaming consoles and computers, after China.

In the past, the Mexican government spurred the growth of these industries by providing incentives for them to group in clusters around cities that have an abundance of skilled engineers graduating from universities and the infrastructure to support shipments to and from the plants. It has since ended those incentives for all but the aerospace industry.

“Mexico has a very well-educated workforce that has the expertise to produce more technical products, like the aerospace industry,” said Derrick Johnson, vice president of segment marketing for UPS. “It is graduating 230,000 engineers every year.”

UPS is working with the Mexican government to identify the areas that have the infrastructure to support the transportation needs of industry clusters. “We look for good roads and rail infrastructure, but also the people with the skills to support these clusters,” Johnson said.

The aerospace industry is clustered around Chihuahua, which boasts plants by Hawker Beechcraft, Honeywell, Pratt & Whitney and Zodiac Aerospace. Bombardier, Eurocopter and Messier-Bugatti-Dowti have plants around Queretaro.

Although the government has scaled back on incentives to other industries, the incentives it provided in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in a cluster of more than 600 high-tech plants in the state of Jalisco around Guadalajara, which is known as Mexico’s Silicon Valley. Foxconn, Jabil Circuit and Flextronics assemble products there with components imported from Asia for the local and the U.S. market. Other plants are clustered around Chihuahua, Monterey and Mexico City.

“One of the big concerns for these highly technical products is intellectual property,” Johnson said. “Mexico’s IP protection is as strong as or stronger than other areas of the world, such as China.”

The automotive industry is far more spread out. Ford Motor Co. has plants in Chihuahua and Sonora in the north and Toluca in the south. Audi and Volkswagen have plants in Puebla near Mexico City. Honda has a number of plants. Chrysler, General Motors and Mercedes Benz have plants in Saltillo. BMW plans to build a plant in San Luis Potosi by 2019.

Approximately 1,100 top-tier parts makers also have opened production facilities in Mexico to supply these plants. Mexican automotive plants export about 80 percent of their production and account for 11 percent of all new car sales in the U.S.

Some cars are transported by rail to the U.S., and others by ocean. “Over the last two years, we’ve been seeing an increase in the traffic of car carriers transporting cars from Lazaro Cardenas through the canal to the U.S. East Coast,” Panama Canal Administrator Jorge Quijano said. “That may change if Mexico improves the roads and rail transport to Veracruz so cars can be shipped directly from there to the East Coast.” He said car carriers have told him they are building post-Panamax vessels that can carry 8,000 to 8,500 cars, compared with the current maximum capacity of 5,000 to 5,500 cars. “So for the next three years, we see strong performances for cars moving from Mexico through the canal to the U.S. East Coast.”

U.S. companies that source products in Mexico find it much easier to manage the engineering and quality control processes than in Asia because it is more cost efficient and easier to visit plants south of the border than across the Pacific. “The ability to supervise your engineering at a plant in Mexico is a lot less expensive than in Asia, and companies are starting to realize this,” said Phillip Poland, director of international trade compliance for DHL. “If I was making strategic decisions for a U.S. company, I would seriously consider building a plant in Mexico.”

Mexico has eased its customs procedures on imports of components for assembly in plants by moving all customs transactions onto a single electronic platform of window for export. “Mexico is ahead of the U.S. in that a single window increases compliance, decreasing the arbitrariness of customs from port to port,” Poland said. “It really streamlines and helps the movement of imports through customs.”

Mexico is working closely with the U.S. and Canada to harmonize their customs procedures under NAFTA. It signed on to the Wassenauer Agreement on export controls last year and is implementing an export control system, which together with its single platform on imports creates greater trade compliance.

Security is less of an issue in Mexico today than in the past, when theft of truckloads in transit was not uncommon. “That’s less frequent now, as the government has been cracking down on cartels to improve transportation safety,” Poland said.

The flow of trucks moving across the U.S. border promises to become easier as a result of changes in U.S. regulations introduced this year. For years, Mexican trucking companies with Mexican drivers could haul cargo only into a narrow commercial zone across the U.S. border, despite the provisions of the NAFTA treaty. In response, Mexico imposed retaliatory tariffs on U.S. imports estimated to cost $2 billion annually.

After a three-year pilot program, the U.S. Department of Transportation started allowing Mexican motor carriers to apply for authority this year to conduct long-haul, cross-border trucking services. Under this program, Mexican trucks must be inspected and meet the same safety regulations as those for U.S. motor carriers.

“You’re starting to see Mexican equipment go farther and farther north,” Ryley said. “What’s defining how far north they go is not any restriction by the law, but is more how much deadheading time they can afford to take on or whether they have the complementary southbound loads that allows for a round trip.”

More U.S. companies opening high-tech factories in Mexico

December 5th, 2013

latimes.com

Faced with rising wages in China and high shipping costs, many businesses are finding manufacturing close to home more appealing. But despite its advantages, Mexico has problems.

By Shan Li

4:37 PM PST, November 29, 2013

Manufacturing in Mexico

Oceas Verona Orocio inspects the latest-model drone at the 3D Robotics manufacturing plant in Tijuana. The company’s drones were formerly made in China. (Don Bartletti, Los Angeles Times / November 30, 2013)

TIJUANA — In an industrial park five miles east of downtown Tijuana, Ariel Ceja toils in a white room bustling with assembly workers hunched over blue tables.

A master scheduler, Ceja is in charge of all steps of production at this factory nestled inside a cavernous warehouse. A cluster of anonymous buildings surround the facility. Nearby are pitted roads, and just a few minutes away by car is the Tijuana airport and a university.

San Diego-based 3D Robotics moved into this once-vacant spot in June, producing affordable drones and electronic parts destined for customers in the U.S. and around the world.

It is just one of many American companies streaming to Mexico to open high-tech factories in a reversal of the outsourcing trend in years past. Called nearshoring, businesses are moving production to Mexico, Canada and other nearby countries to take advantage of their proximity to the U.S.

“Recently I have been seeing more American companies bringing production here,” said Ceja, who started working for 3D Robotics a month ago. During the 1990s, “there were more Asian companies coming in, Japanese, Korean, but that has changed.”

It’s not just in Tijuana. Manufacturing plants are also opening in Mexican cities such as Guadalajara and Mexico City, bringing a wave of new jobs to a country recovering from the economic downturn and still fighting constant drug violence.

From 2009 to 2012, foreign investment in Mexico jumped more than 50% to $7.4 billion, and exports from foreign-owned factories also grew 50% to $196 billion, according to one industry group that tracks maquiladoras, or assembly plants in Mexico that are owned by foreign companies. After plunging during the economic recession, employment also has jumped 25% to more than 2 million. According to an economic study from South/East San Diego, themaquiladora industry is one of Tijuana’s biggest employers, behind businesses linked to its border crossing.

“Sometime in the last year, we reached a crossover point where it became cheaper to make a lot of goods in Mexico than in China,” said Hal Sirkin, a senior partner at Boston Consulting Group. “A lot of American companies are looking or moving.”

The global recession and its aftermath led companies to rethink their supply chain. Faced with rising wages in China and high oil prices, many are reconsidering the appeal of manufacturing close to home, especially small and medium-size businesses without the bargaining clout of Apple and Wal-Mart.

Those businesses are finding a skilled workforce for high-tech manufacturing in Mexico. The country has doubled the number of post-secondary public schools, many devoted to science and technology. Former President Felipe Calderon last year bragged that Mexico was graduating 130,000 technicians and engineers a year, more than Germany or Canada.

The educated labor pool has attracted the car industry. Mexico has gained at least 100,000 auto-related jobs since 2010, according to a Brookings Institution report. Nissan, Honda, General Motors and Ford have all announced plans to expand in coming years.

3D Robotics, which makes drones and parts priced up to $730 for civilians and tech enthusiasts, is among the start-ups drawn to Mexico’s low costs and proximity to the U.S. The company once manufactured its drones and kits in Southern California and China.

But Chief Executive Chris Anderson said making products overseas was a lengthy process that meant waiting for months for merchandise to come on ships. Chinese factories also required bulk orders that tied up a lot of the company’s capital and prevented engineers from innovating quickly, which is vital in a tech sector such as drones.

“We decided it didn’t make sense at our scale and pace of innovation to ramp up in China,” Anderson said.

Instead, the company looked south.

3D’s first Mexico factory in 2011 was in the three-bedroom Tijuana apartment of general manager Guillermo Romero, who spent the first months of the test run in Mexico soldering parts and assembling drones in his living room along with one employee.

“We started with some benches and soldering stations you can buy anywhere,” Romero said. “We were like, ‘Let’s see what happens.'”

Sales of drones assembled in Mexico quickly grew after Romero got the hang of putting them together, and 3D moved into its first manufacturing space last year.

The last of the manufacturing equipment was trucked to Tijuana this spring, when the company moved to its current 12,000-square-foot facility. American engineers in San Diego design drones that are crafted almost completely by about 60 assembly workers in Tijuana.

A walk through the cavernous warehouse that houses the factory shows 3D’s quick expansion. On the second floor, a newly completed call center opened about a month ago, bringing customer service in-house for the first time. Inside the assembly room, workers solder circuit boards, attach plastic arms and test the flying machines.

“Mexico is very flexible. You can start projects here and grow them,” Romero said. “It’s very good for start-ups.”

For California companies, Mexico can be an especially attractive bet, analysts say. The ability to order in small batches means that designs can be changed quickly and production can be revved up and slowed down in a matter of days instead of months.

That can be invaluable during the holidays, as San Bernardino-based Cannon Safe learned.

On Black Friday in 2008, the safe manufacturing company received a panicked call from a major retailer that had drastically slimmed down its inventory in response the financial crash, President Aaron Baker said. But shoppers were scooping up their safes, prompting the chain to issue thousands of rain checks that it had to quickly honor.

Cannon’s Mexico facility was able to increase production and deliver new merchandise within four days, compared with weeks or months if the safes had come from China, Baker said. “That was our ‘aha’ moment.”

Today, about 60% of the company’s safes are made in Mexico, nearly double the production levels five years ago. Meanwhile, its China production has dropped by half, Baker said.

Although wages are higher in Mexico than in China, the relative ease of doing business and proximity can bring costs on par or even lower. Companies find that they don’t lose valuable time waiting for shipments. Deliveries can also be routed to another port or simply brought by truck when problems crop up, such as the eight-day strike that paralyzed the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach last winter.

Companies looking to bring production closer to home rank Mexico as their No. 1 choice, according to a survey from consulting firm AlixPartners.

The tipping point may have come last year when manufacturing costs in Mexico, when adjusted for productivity, dropped below those in China, according to a Boston Consulting Group report. Within two years, the average cost of production in Mexico will be 6% below China and as much as 30% lower than countries such as Japan and Germany.

“Companies are bringing back parts of manufacturing to Mexico. They are saying, ‘We want our manufacturing process close to our engineers, we want our inventory next to our customers so it’s easier to ship,'” said Joe Mazza, a partner at advisory and accounting firm McGladrey in Los Angeles. “There are also many companies in China that are not exiting China, but reducing their manufacturing and bringing some to Mexico.”

With all its advantages, Mexico still has its fair share of problems. Companies that don’t produce their own goods can have a hard time finding the right third-party manufacturer in a country that can’t compete yet with China’s dense supplier base and strong manufacturing infrastructure. Mexico also just passed fiscal reforms that include raising taxes on U.S.-owned companies and other businesses, increasing worries that foreign firms might leave the country.

Despite these challenges, more U.S. companies will consider locating factories in Mexico in the coming years, analysts said.

“This is the return of manufacturing in Mexico,” said Scott Stanley, senior vice president of NAPS, which aids companies setting up factories in Mexico. “Every month it seems like there are more and more companies moving. There is no sign of that trend slowing down.”

shan.li@latimes.com

Copyright © 2013, Los Angeles Times

President’s proposed tax reform is huge threat to Maquiladoras and border economy

October 7th, 2013

Mexico’s President Enrique Pena Nieto recently presented to Congress the executive’s fiscal reform initiative which will be evaluated by the House of Representatives first and then by the Senate.

The highly controversial proposal, originally expected to structurally reform Mexico’s budget model, turned out to be a general tax increase on businesses, higher income earners and international firms manufacturing in Mexico, among other already “captive” tax payers.

The proposal does not include any provisions for the reduction or transparency of public spending, and does not properly provide for the incorporation of informal, unregistered businesses to the taxpaying base.

According to Alfredo Coutino, Moody’s Latin America Director: “The proposal is short of the expectations originally outlined by the President and it does not reach the objective of balancing the budget.

The proposal is based on hiking current taxes and creating new ones for the current tax payers; it does not propose to improve the efficiency of the tax authority by increasing the number of tax payers.”

The proposition is a political social initiative as it seeks to dedicate a large portion of the tax proceeds to support unemployment insurance and universal health coverage in Mexico. It also waives to impose IVA (value added tax, VAT, or sales tax) on food and medicines (The possibility of taxing food and medicines was highly unpopular and was strongly opposed by the left parties).

Selective social programs are certainly needed in Mexico, but not at the sole expense of businesses.

Although rather unlikely, some hope that the government controlled House of Representatives is able to produced a more balanced proposal that includes spending cuts, transparency and accountability by state and federal entities and the expansion of the tax payers base.

Mexico’s legislators were setting an example so far through the “Pact for Mexico”, blitzing through reforms in education, telecom and anti-trust among others. Although the heat of recent elections seems to have dented the process, Mexico’s legislators are not yet ready to “join the club” of their U.S. colleagues where Congress is practically paralyzed.

The resulting tax reform legislation in Mexico, if passed, is expected to be announced during this coming week of October 20.

THE EFFECT ON MAQUILADORAS

Maquiladoras’ oldest cry in Mexico is the need for permanent and clear tax rules so that they can adequately make their typical 5-year financial and production plans. But the treasury department frequently changes the rules defying Mexico’s competitiveness to attract foreign investment. This time around, the resilience of maquiladoras may be pushed over the cliff.

In a nutshell, the new tax reform proposal includes the elimination of the preferential tax treatment that the maquiladoras currently have, taking them from a preferential corporate income tax rate of 17.5% to a rate of 30%.

In addition, the proposal will also impose a new 10% tax on corporate dividends and it will also expand the taxable income base by eliminating deductions and changing the “price-transfer” rules between parent company and maquiladora subsidiaries.

Also, the tax proposal practically eliminates the highly successful maquiladora regime that grants a tax free treatment on temporary importations of industrial inputs, by charging IVA in such imports. Although this IVA is subject to a drawback, it would take a huge amount of funds to finance its 6-month cycle from the time of payment until the eventual reimbursement.

Also, under the new rules, maquiladoras’ parent companies would be required to pay 16% IVA tax on the value of buy/sell transactions on the production supply chain or maquila to maquila transfers.

Unless they make profound changes to their global corporate structure, the IVA would directly impact the cost of doing business, because they would not be able to recover it. This would directly affect many Mexican businesses that are involved in the supply chain structure.

Carlos Angulo, PAN Congressman and member of the Maquiladora Committee and Secretary of the Constitutional Reform Committee of the lower house said: “We can summarize the effects of the proposed tax reform on the maquiladora industry in one word: Catastrophic.”

“For example, under the new rules, if implemented, the annual income tax bill of a typical 500-workers maquiladora operation would go from a current level of about $24 Million Pesos to over $230 Million”, explained Angulo, “..and the maquiladora industry as a whole would need to increase its working capital by US$17.5 Billion at an annual financial cost of about US$750 Million just to keep up with the IVA requirements on temporary imports.”

“Supply chain operations between maquiladoras, a current common practice, would be interrupted if faced with cascading IVA impositions. The tax reform proposal would be like a catastrophic knock-out blow to the maquiladora industry global competitiveness” said Angulo.

Luis Aguirre Lang, President of the Maquiladora National Council (INDEX) expressed his frustration as follows: “The tax reform has created panic among the international firms operating in Mexico. We could lose up to two million, three hundred thousand manufacturing jobs if this reform is approved as proposed.”

THE EFFECT ON THE BORDER ECONOMY

The tax reform includes a generalized consumption increase of the IVA rate within the border region from 11% to 16%.

Any housewife living in Ciudad Juarez knows what this means: More trips to El Paso to buy clothing, house items, school supplies, etc., anything that will be taxed in Mexico at 16%, she can get in El Paso at a sales tax rate of 8.25%, which with a little effort she can get refunded.

And the flow of visitors from El Paso to Juarez, which had recently started to pick-up as the security improved, will certainly suffer as restaurants, bars and other IVA taxed purchases will automatically increase their prices by 5% if the tax reform gets approved by Congress.

The reduction of consumer purchases in Juarez as a result of the IVA increase, will weigh in to increase the closing of commercial businesses, unemployment and violence.

The combination of reduced consumption and pulling the rug from under the maquiladoras will have a multiplying, significant negative effect on Mexican border cities’ economies and their quality of life.

CONCLUSION

Carlos Angulo summed it up as follows: “The tax reform proposal appears to be designed by a freshman student with a total ignorance of border commerce and international production sharing practices.”

It is expected that industry associations, state and city governments and everybody else with a stake in the maquiladora industry and the border economy will lobby heavily in the weeks to come to mitigate the negative effects of the tax reform on the 43 year-old successful maquiladora program.

Article PDF download link

Juarez-El Paso NOW Staff report

 

Mexican Manufacturing Benefits U.S. Industry

July 26th, 2013

TECMA

When NAFTA was first implemented in the early 1990s, the fear was that Mexican manufacturing would cost the U.S. jobs and wreak havoc upon U.S. industry. Mexico was viewed largely as an economic competitor that would pilfer U.S. employment opportunities, businesses, and bring about the demise of national economic prosperity. This set of assumptions was merely the result of a misconception of the nature of the U.S.-Mexico industrial alliance.

In reality, China has been a much more formidable concern in terms of low wages and competition for industry stateside. The past decade, however, has amply shown that the best way for U.S. industry to meet this challenge is partnership – not competition – with Mexico through production sharing, or vertical specialization, which occurs when two or more countries bilaterally produce a product. In other words, Mexican manufacturing firms rely upon materials produced by U.S. suppliers. The geographic proximity of Mexico and the U.S. has actually led to greater opportunities for U.S. suppliers vs. China. This is demonstrated by the fact that Mexican imports contain ten times more U.S. content than similar items manufactured by the Chinese. In fact, 40% of the United States’ imports from Mexico contain material inputs that originated in the United States.

Thus we see that “near-sourcing” manufacturing jobs to Mexico is, in a palpable way, beneficial to U.S. industry, fostering a partnership that keeps high paying jobs in the U.S. and sustains a demand for suppliers to feed the manufacturing done in Mexico that will then be exported, in most instances, back to the U.S.. This partnership results in products that, when sitting on shelves next to those produced in China and other developing countries such as India, Brazil, Indonesia, Vietnam and Malaysia, are price competitive.

With the aforementioned in mind, it is no surprise that one in twenty-four U.S. jobs is dependent on the Mexican maquiladora industry. Over 6 million U.S. jobs are dedicated to supplying manufacturing operations in Mexico, which means there is significant opportunity for U.S. suppliers to expand to meet the demand created by Mexican manufacturing activities.

Four segments in particular presently stand out as unique growth opportunities for U.S. industry:

In 2011, the Mexican automotive industry achieved a growth rate of thirteen percent. As a result, the demand for U.S. made parts and supplies is on the rise – these include items such as spare and replacement parts for gasoline and diesel engines, electrical parts, collision repair parts, gear boxes, drive axles, catalytic converters, and steering wheel assemblies, for example.

In 2010 alone, Mexico imported approximately $3.5 billion worth of products for the manufacturing of medical devices, $2 billion of which were from U.S. suppliers. Key opportunities for medical products suppliers include anesthesia equipment, defibrillators, electrocardiographs, electro surgery equipment, incubators, lasers for surgery, etc.

Total Mexican packaging production reached 9.1 million tons of containers and materials in 2010 for a value of $10.1 billion, of which $2.5 billion came from U.S. industry. There is significant growth potential for U.S. suppliers of metal, plastics, glass, wood, and cardboard packaging materials.

$1.4 billion was invested in plastics manufacturing in Mexico in 2011, revealing a steady rise in the demand for plastic materials and resins. Additionally, Mexico exports Ethylene and imports Polyethylene, which shows the opportunity for U.S. industry to supply polymerization technology.

Mexican manufacturing, although this may be counter intuitive to some, should be viewed as a partner to the U.S., rather than exclusively as a competitor.

K. Alan Russell
President and C.E.O.

The Tecma Group of Companies
2000 Wyoming Avenue
El Paso, Texas 79903
Phone: 915 . 534.4252
Fax: 915 . 534.0205
E-Mail: Alan@Tecma.com
www.Tecma.com

Our Mission: “To create an environment where our clients and employees never want to leave us.”

Four Reasons Mexico Is Becoming a Global Manufacturing Power

July 1st, 2013
http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-06-27/four-reasons-mexico-is-becoming-a-global-manufacturing-power

Mexico is beginning to beat China as a manufacturing base for many companies despite its higher crime rate, according to a new report from Boston Consulting Group. Mexico’s gain is a plus for the U.S. because Mexican factories use four times as many American-made components as Chinese factories do, says the consulting firm. Here are Mexico’s four key advantages:

1. Manufacturing wages, adjusted for Mexico’s superior worker productivity, are likely to be 30 percent lower than in China by 2015. China’s wages have soared. They were about one-quarter as high as Mexico’s in 2000 but are catching up rapidly and will be slightly higher by 2015. And labor productivity remains higher in Mexico, even though the gap is narrowing. The crossover point was 2012, when unit labor costs in China (i.e., wages adjusted for productivity) grew to equal those in Mexico. By 2015, Mexico will be around 29 percent less expensive.

2. Mexico has more free-trade agreements than any other country. The North American Free Trade Agreement gives Mexican goods easy access to the world’s largest market, the U.S., as well as to Canada. But that’s not all. Mexico has free-trade agreements covering 44 countries. That’s more than the U.S. (20 partners) and China (18) combined.

3. Mexican manufacturing has a significant advantage in energy costs. Natural gas prices in Mexico are tied to those of the U.S., which are exceptionally low because of a glut of supply on the market. China pays from 50 percent to 170 percent more for industrial natural gas. Mexico also has an edge over China in electricity costs, although power isn’t as cheap in Mexico as in the U.S.

4. Industry clusters, especially in autos and appliances, are growing. Mexico has developed a national expertise in certain industries, which makes it more attractive for companies to locate or expand plants there. Because Mexico is a major auto manufacturer, 89 of the world’s top 100 auto parts makers have production in the country. The companies are concentrated in five Mexican states, reducing transportation costs. In appliances, more than 70 manufacturers are in the country, ranging from components makers to assemblers of both small and large appliances.

Mexico’s progress relative to China is major good news for the country because manufacturing accounts for 35 percent of Mexico’s gross domestic product (vs. 12 percent of U.S. GDP), Harold Sirkin, the report’s lead author, says in an interview. The U.S. benefits in two ways, he says. First, by selling more components to Mexican manufacturers. Second, by selling more consumer products, such as American-made beef, to Mexicans, who will have more money for imported products if their living standards rise.

How Mexico Is Becoming More Attractive To U.S. Manufacturers

March 29th, 2013
Mexico’s economy boomed when the country signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) nearly two decades ago. The manufacturing sector especially thrived as U.S. firms shifted their operations to Mexico to take advantage of the cheap labor costs. As a result, Mexico’s share of U.S. manufactured goods import rose from slightly about 4% in 1994 to about 13% in 2001, according to a report in the latest issue of IMF’s Finance & Development magazine.

Then the party almost came to a halt when communist China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. China’s entry into the WTO gave the country a strong edge over over Mexico since China could freely export its goods to the U.S. without any import restrictions. Hence China’s goods exports to the U.S. rose significantly while Mexico’s exports suffered.

From the report:

Between 2001 and 2005, Chinese manufacturing exports to the United States expanded at an average annual rate of 24%, while Mexico’s export growth decelerated sharply from about 20% a year to 3% on average each year over the same period. As a result, China’s share of U.S. manufacturing imports almost doubled by 2005, eroding the previous gains in market share by Mexico (see Chart 1).

In recent years, Mexico has been slowly regaining its lost manufacturing capacity as U.S. firms shift production to the country from China and other countries. This shift can be attributed to two reasons: labor cost and transportation cost.

(click to enlarge)

The above chart shows that wages in China are rising yearly and is getting closer to Mexican wages. Wages in the manufacturing sector in Mexico has remained fairly stable over the years while wages in China have been increasing. So China is becoming less competitive for U.S. firms.

Another factor that makes Mexico more attractive to U.S. companies is transportation costs. Since Mexico is much closer to the U.S. than China, and a stable rail and road network exists between the two countries, costs of shipping goods from Mexico to the U.S. is lower. Shorter distance also means that goods can reach U.S. destinations faster from Mexico than those transported by ships from China. Unless wage inflation in China stabilizes, manufacturing firms may continue to move out to other countries including Mexico, Vietnam, Philippines, etc. From an investment perspective, it is wise to keep an eye on the Mexican economy and equities.

(click to enlarge)

Source: The Comeback by Herman Kamil and Jeremy Zook, Finance & Development, march 2013, IMF

Mexico Replaces China as U.S. Supplier With No Wage Gains: Jobs

June 15th, 2012

Bloomberg-Businessweek Logo

By Nacha Cattan and Eric Martin on June 14, 2012

Julio Don Juan makes $400 a month at a noisy, cramped Mexico City call center. Without a raise in three years, he says he had to pull his 7-year-old son out of a special-needs school he can no longer afford.

In some places he might seek another job. Not in Mexico, where wages after inflation have risen at an annual pace of 0.4 percent since 2005 — worse than other nations in the region including Brazil, Colombia and Uruguay, according to the International Labour Organization. Close to a third of Mexicans toil in the informal economy without steady income. Julio Don Juan says many would envy him.

The cheap labor that is helping Mexico surpass China as a low-cost supplier of manufacturing goods to the U.S. — and lured companies including Nissan Motor Co. (7201) — has restrained progress for many of the country’s 112 million citizens. While Enrique Pena Nieto, the front-runner in polls to capture the July 1 presidential vote, has said wages are too low, whoever wins confronts the challenge of boosting workers’ incomes but not so much that assembly lines leave for other markets.

“The trick isn’t only to pay better salaries, it’s to make raises more sustainable,” said Sergio Luna, chief economist at Citigroup Inc.’s Banamex unit in Mexico City. “We have to be more productive, but it won’t be easy because it implies changing the status quo.”

Mexico’s low wages, cheap peso and surging auto shipments to the U.S. — which buys 80 percent of its exports — have increased manufacturing competitiveness during the past decade as labor costs in China and Japan have risen.

Sounder Footing

This has put Mexico’s economy on a sounder footing than Brazil’s to weather a prolonged global downturn. After trailing growth in Latin America’s biggest economy during the past decade — and watching as a commodities boom allowed Brazil to increase wages an annual average 3.4 percent above inflation from 2005 to 2011 — Mexico is poised to outperform Brazil for the second consecutive year.

President Felipe Calderon’s government forecasts gross domestic product will expand 3.5 percent this year and says exports will probably surpass a 2011 record of $350 billion. By contrast, Brazil will grow around 2.5 percent, according to a central bank survey of economists this month.

“A changing of the guard is slowly but surely taking place,” Nomura Holdings Inc. (8604) analysts wrote in a May report. “Ten years from now, we are confident that Mexico will likely be seen as having become the most dynamic economy in the region.”

Trade Agreements

Low wages aren’t Mexico’s only attraction: Inflation that reached 180 percent in 1988 has been kept under control by a central bank that since January 2010 has been under the stewardship of Agustin Carstens. The former deputy managing director of the International Monetary Fund has kept the benchmark rate at 4.5 percent since taking office, helping to fuel a rally in government bonds.

Investors also benefit from laws that limit the government deficit and trade accords with more than 30 nations, including the North American Free Trade Agreement with the U.S. and Canada. Mexico also offers savings for companies that want to be closer to American consumers, after a tripling of oil prices in the past decade raised transportation costs for Asian manufacturers.

Nissan, Japan’s second-largest automaker, shifted production of low-cost cars to Thailand and Mexico in recent years to counter losses as the yen appreciated, while Mexico’s peso slumped 18 percent in the past six years against the U.S. dollar. The company’s Mexican output hit a record 607,087 cars and light-duty trucks last year, rising 20 percent from 2010.

The latest company to expand operations is Plantronics Inc. (PLT) (PLT), which this month announced a $30 million investment after closing its plant in China as wages began rising there, said Cesar Lopez Ramos, the company’s Mexico legal representative.

Human Capital

Mexico has proven more attractive for the Santa Cruz, California-based headset maker because of its steady wages and “human capital that is more developed and capable of not only making products but innovating,” Lopez Ramos said in a telephone interview from Tijuana.

Some Mexicans criticize Calderon’s National Action Party, or PAN, for not spreading the benefits of economic stability more widely during 12 years of rule. In the absence of a stronger domestic market, jobs remain heavily dependent on U.S. consumers and foreign-operated assembly plants, known as maquiladoras. Unemployment, currently at 4.9 percent, has been more than double a 2000 low of 2.2 percent since 2009.

“We’re scraping by,” said Julio Don Juan, 37, the call- center worker. “Because costs keep rising, I’m actually getting a pay cut each year, rather than a raise.” He lives with his parents, who help him care for his son.

Low Inflation

Economy Minister Bruno Ferrari says that low inflation and expanded social programs have reduced poverty during the past dozen years and stemmed declines in purchasing power from previous decades, he told reporters May 8 in Mexico City. The share of Mexicans suffering from food poverty — lack of access to healthy, nutritious meals — fell to 19 percent in 2010 from 24 percent in 2000, according to government data.

A press official from the Mexican finance ministry didn’t respond to a request for comment.

Partly as a result of muted wage growth, Mexico’s per- capita GDP has risen 48 percent since 1999 on a purchasing- power-parity basis, the least among Latin America’s seven biggest economies, according to the IMF. By comparison, Venezuela climbed 51 percent, Brazil increased 73 percent and Peru more than doubled.

Time Lost

The lack of opportunities has spurred an exodus of 12 million Mexicans to the U.S. in the past four decades, more than half illegally, according to a study published in April by the Washington-based Pew Research Center. While net migration dropped to zero between 2005 and 2010, and some Mexican immigrants may be returning home because of the weak U.S. job market, departures northward could resume if the U.S. expansion picks up, Pew said.

“We need to make up for time lost over the past four or five years in the area of employment and salaries,” former President Vicente Fox, of Calderon’s PAN party, said in a May 2 interview in Mexico City. “The challenge for the next government is very big.”

Dissatisfaction with the economy is propelling Pena Nieto’s bid to return his Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI, to power for the first time since Fox ended its 71-year reign in 2000. The 45-year-old former governor of Mexico state had 37.2 percent support in a June 8-10 poll by Consulta Mitofsky, compared with 25.1 percent for Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who narrowly lost to Calderon in 2006, and 21 percent for Josefina Vazquez Mota of the PAN.

Raise Salaries

If elected, Pena Nieto says he’ll raise salaries gradually, by improving productivity. To do so, he promises to support legislation making it easier to hire and fire workers, luring more companies into the formal economy where they can take out loans more easily and make investments. He also favors ending state-run Petroleos Mexicanos’ monopoly; revenue for Latin America’s largest oil producer funds about a third of Mexico’s public budget.

“In no way are we willing to sustain Mexico’s competitiveness through low salaries, nor can we raise salaries artificially through populist measures,” Luis Videgaray, Pena Nieto’s campaign manager and his finance chief when the candidate was governor, said in a May 30 interview. “The only way to increase productivity is through reforms.”

Pena Nieto’s rivals say he isn’t capable of bringing about the change he promises and returning the PRI to power would reignite corruption that blossomed under its previous rule.

Poor Performance

Boosting Mexico’s productivity won’t be easy, given the poor performance of the country’s schools and the size of its underground economy, which the government says employs 29 percent of the workforce.

The nation’s education system ranks last out of 34 countries for enrolled high school-age students, behind regional rivals Chile, Argentina and Brazil, according to a 2011 study by the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The study included non-OECD members.

Improving education and generating better-paying jobs may also help the next government turn the tide in the battle against the nation’s drug cartels. A bloody turf war between rival gangs has claimed more than 47,000 lives since Calderon took office in 2006 and the government estimates that the drug war shaves 1.2 percentage points off economic output annually.

Skill Shortages

Delphi Automotive Plc (DLPH) (DLPH), the former parts unit of General Motors Co. (GM) (GM), has been addressing the skilled-labor shortage by training engineering students at its factories in the border city of Ciudad Juarez. About half of the Troy, Michigan-based company’s global workforce of 101,000 is employed in its 46 Mexico plants, compared with less than 30 percent in China.

While wages for some engineering jobs are rising, Delphi isn’t concerned that salaries will spike anytime soon, said Enrique Calvillo, the company’s human-resources manager in Mexico.

“We are always monitoring this, and we don’t see the possibility of an extreme boom in the next two or three years,” he said in a telephone interview from Ciudad Juarez.

That’s bad news for Antonio Chavero, who makes less than $1,000 a month as an engineering supervisor with three decades of experience in the car industry and who works at a parts plant in the central state of Queretaro. While he does metalwork in his basement to supplement his income and support his daughter, who is a teenage mother, his family still doesn’t earn enough to eat meat more than once a week, he said.

“I supervise 15 workers,” Chavero said. “I should be making more money.”

Nearshoring Fuels Mexican Manufacturing Growth

April 9th, 2012

Security concerns don’t yet appear to be putting a major dent in Mexico’s appeal to manufacturers. Here’s why.

Wednesday, March 14, 2012
By  Closer, cheaper, friendlier. That might have been the formula underlying moving to or opening manufacturing operations in Mexico. The United States’ southern neighbor offers transportation distances a fraction of those from Asia, a labor force a good deal cheaper than domestic workers, and a country causing fewer headaches about intellectual property and other trade concerns. But in recent years, drug-related violence along the border has caused some manufacturers to be more cautious about making the move to Mexico.

Even with those concerns, Mexico continues to benefit from U.S. companies and other foreign investors who see it as an attractive manufacturing destination. In fact, 63% of those surveyed by AlixPartners, a business advisory firm, named Mexico the most attractive country for siting manufacturing operations closer to the United States. Only 19% of the companies reported supply-chain disruptions in Mexico as a result of security issues. And 50% reported they expect things to improve over the next five years.

Mexico’s proximity to the United States solves the most pressing issue facing manufacturers, which is speed to market, according to Rich Bergmann, global lead for manufacturing for Accenture. “The stability of the time schedule of supply has become paramount in manufacturing. Whether we like it or not, a 12-month forecast, steady-state demand is no longer a reality. Everyone is running lean supply chains and inventories. Being close to customers is key to reducing lead time. Add to that the overall total landed cost and that explains why reshoring is occurring in Mexico,” he says.

In fact, Mexico helps multinational firms cope with a variety of factors stemming from intense global competition, says Arnold Matlz, an associate professor at the W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University. They include the pressure to reduce and control operating costs, the need for operational flexibility, the need for different service outcomes for different customers, and shorter product/service development cycles.

 

 
Precision manufacturing is critical to aerospace-industry needs.
Photo Courtesy of The Offshore Group

To date, manufacturers operating in Mexico have been largely shielded from the drug-related violence. “As reports have indicated, Mexico’s violence is characteristically cartel versus cartel. It is something that has not had a very large amount of leakage into civil society, nor has it affected, in a noticeable way, the companies that are already doing business there. As a matter of fact, in spite of what is in the news, Mexico’s manufacturing economy is humming along,” says Steve Colantuoni, director of corporate marketing for the Offshore Group. “Companies that are already in Mexico are increasing their numbers and their production.”

Foreign direct investment in Mexico rose 9.7% in 2011 compared to 2010 to reach $19.44 billion, indicating that violence is not chasing away dollars. This faith in Mexico is helping to fuel strong economic growth there. After a 5.5% growth rate in 2011, the Mexican economy is expected to grow 4.5% in 2012. Manufacturing has been a significant driver of the economy, growing 8% over the past year and creating 1.8 million jobs.

A High-Flying Aerospace Cluster

One industry flocking to Mexico for its lower cost structure and ample workforce is aerospace manufacturing. Between 2010 and 2011, total sales in Mexico’s aerospace cluster increased by 25% to $4.5 billion, according to the Aerospace Industries Association, far outstripping the industry’s overall annual growth rate of 15%, according to data from the World Bank.

More than 250 aerospace companies and suppliers, including Aernnova, Bombardier, Cessna, Eurocopter, Hawker Beechcraft and Messier Dowty, now operate in Mexico and employ 29,000 people. As large OEMs set up shop, suppliers follow. Québec-based Heroux-Devtek, a manufacturer of aerospace and industrial products, made the move after prompting from some of its biggest clients. “Customers such as Boeing were saying, ‘If you want to be a key supplier, then you should consider Mexico’,” says Michael Deshaies, general manager of the firm’s Querétaro operations. Querétaro is one of the top states in Mexico for the industry along with Chihuahua and Sonora.

In fact, in Sonora alone, located in Northeast Mexico, manufacturing has been growing at 25% a year for the past five years. The number of companies serving the aerospace supply chain has grown from 21 in 2007 to 45 in 2011; and employment in the sector has more than doubled at the same time, from 2,520 to 7,000. The city expects employment will exceed 10,000 jobs by the end of 2013.

One employer contributing to the growing industry is INCERTEC, a specialty plating, metal finishing and engineering-solutions company based in Fridley, Minn. The company will be investing $1.2 million to move some processes to Mexico from Minnesota, where both capacity and labor constraints make it difficult to fulfill demand.

“In the industries we serve, precision is critical,” says Tim Meador, INCERTEC’s chief executive officer. “By adding this location, we can provide manufacturers doing business in Mexico the same consistency, quality and delivery provided by our U.S. location.”

Another consideration for Meador was the available labor source in Mexico. The average age in Mexico is 29, which means it is one of the youngest nations on the planet. Every year, 90,000 engineers graduate from Mexican universities — three times the number who graduate from U.S. schools. This contrasts to the company’s Minnesota location, where there is a shortage of skilled labor.

 

 
Mexican manufacturing provides advantages for high-volume manufacturers.
Photo Courtesy of The Offshore Group

It is not only the skilled labor but also the low cost of investing that attracted Scott Livingston, CEO of Horst Engineering, to the region. “New England is a good area for knowledge, but it is a high-cost environment,” says Livingston. East Hartford, Conn.-based Horst, a contract manufacturer of precision components and assemblies, has been in Sonora since 2006.

“We looked at environments all over the world and came back to the aerospace-manufacturing-in-Mexico option,” Livingston explains. “We felt that for a high-mix, low-volume product in a high-precision environment with a significant North American customer base, that it would give us significant opportunity — opportunity to transfer some product that we may not have been as competitive on in the U.S. that we were doing for existing customers; and it would give us access to a new labor pool that was manufacturing-oriented. We’ve seen considerable shrinkage of the manufacturing labor force in Connecticut, and we’re training people from scratch here anyway. So we figured we could do that in Mexico.”

Training is one of the many incentives offered to companies. “Government incentives, including training and infrastructure improvements, are key reasons that the aerospace cluster is growing. The government is also increasing resources to build up interior areas as opposed to the border towns,” explains Jay Jessup, president, Mexico Services Group.

Becoming a Manufacturing Export Powerhouse

Aerospace isn’t the only industry finding a manufacturing-friendly environment in Mexico. Automotive manufacturing in Mexico was on the rise in 2011, observes George Magliano, senior principal economist at IHS Global.

“It was a year of record production in terms of total vehicle consumption and export in the light- and passenger-vehicle market segments,” he notes. “Mexico is becoming a magnet for supplier investment. This is due to announcements of sizable investment in the country in new production platforms over the last year by large automotive-industry OEMs such as Nissan, Mazda, BMW, Volkswagen and General Motors.”

In 2008 Mexico became the largest supplier of auto parts to the United States. In 2010 Mexico ranked as the sixth largest automotive exporter in the world. The country exports 80% of its vehicles to the United States, and 11 of every 100 autos sold in the United States are made in Mexico. Predictions are that by 2014 automotive production will reach 2.4 million units. Eight of the 10 leading automotive OEMs have assembly plants in Mexico, and more than 300 Tier 1 suppliers have plants in Mexico.

 

The skill sets of Mexican aerospace-industry workers continue to advance.
Photo Courtesy of The Offshore Group

Heavy-truck manufacturers include Dina, Navistar, Kenworth, Daimler, Volvo, Isuzu and Scania.

On the supplier side, over 1,100 companies manufacture auto parts in Mexico, including: Robert Bosch, Denso, Delphi, Magna, Visteon, Eaton, Valeo, Bridgestone/Firestone, Johnson Controls, Michelin, Goodyear, Lear, ThyssenKrupp, Faurecia and Siemens.

In terms of exports of high-tech manufacturing, Mexico is the second largest supplier of electronic products to the United States. Exports of consumer electronics and devices reached $71.4 billion in 2010, an increase of 20% over the previous year. In fact, Mexico is the third largest global exporter of cell phones.

While Mexico is still heavily dependent on the United States for its exports, the country is starting to diversify its export markets.

“Mexico’s exporting structure has been based on the U.S. market where 90% of the products land. But during the recent economic downturn, in the past three years, they have reduced this number to less than 80%. Their export markets are more diverse, with Latin America growing. In fact, trade with Brazil alone has increased fivefold,” explains David Rutchik, a partner with Pace Harmon, an outsourcing advisory services firm.

Fueled by a young, increasingly educated population, low labor rates and aggressive promotion by Mexican government officials, Mexico appears well-situated for years of sustained growth. “We are predicting that by 2050 Mexico will be the eighth largest economy in the world,” says Paul Cronin, a U.S.-based executive vice president with the international commercial banking firm HSBC.”